Canada is the, surface-wise, largest country in North America before the United States and Mexico. It's the northernmost in the world and the second largest in area (after Russia). The country is a federation of ten provinces and three territories. Initially constituted through the British North America Act of 1867 and styled the "Dominion of Canada", it is governed as a parliamentary democracy and is a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state.
Canada's official languages are English and French. Its official population estimate is 35.85 million people.
Originally a union of former French and British colonies, Canada is a founding member of the the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, and La Francophonie. Canada is also one of the original members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
The capital of Canada is Ottawa, Ontario, the seat of Parliament. The largest city in population is Toronto, Ontario. Both the Governor General of Canada, who exercises the prerogatives of the head of state (the monarch), and the Prime Minister, who is the head of government, have official residences in Ottawa. The current Prime Minister is Justin Trudeau of the Liberal Party of Canada. There is also a leader of the opposition, the current being Rona Ambrose. David Johnston is the current Governor General.
Canada is officially bilingual. French is the majority language of Quebec and is widely spoken in New Brunswick and southern Manitoba. English is the majority language elsewhere except in certain communities and in Nunavut, where the majority language is Inuktitut.
Canada's residents are known as Canadians. Worldwide, Canadians or are usually beloved (especially in places such as Holland). Many people often mistaken Canadians for Americans due to the similaries in accents and cultures.
Canada can be dated back to 13,000 B.C when native tribes lived all over the country until 1,000 A.D when Norsemen landed in Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1492 A.D the French colonized Canada until 1763 A.D when Canada was colonized by the British until 1815 when American's took over until 1973. The United Nations declared Canada an independent nation.